Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder. Lifetime prevalence is about 12 % .Depression can begin anytime during life even during childhood.
Depression is more than just feeling the blues, having a down day or being sad in a reaction to bad news, depression matters because it can affect all aspects of persons life
Symptoms of depression include : Having little interest and pleasure in doing things ,feeling down and hopeless, trouble falling and staying asleep, or sleeping too much, feeling tired or having little energy, poor appetite or overeating, frustration even over small matters, irritability and angry outbursts, slowed thinking, indecisiveness, distractibility and decreased concentration, impaired memory, moving and speaking so slowly or being so fidgety or restless, crying spells for no apparent reason, reduced sex drive, feeling bad about yourself , having low self-esteem, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, death wishes, suicidal ideation, and unexplained physical problems
The etiology of depression has yet to be fully understood, however it is likely to be a complex interaction between genetic predisposition to the illness and environmental factors like stressful life events.
Depression is a complex syndrome with many contributing biological factors and this include imbalance in the monoamines neuro-transmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine , and dopamine), decrease growth factors (like Brain derived neurotrophic factor ) which are important for the support and survival of neurons, glutamate and its receptors, and inflammation.
Evidence for negative impact of depression is well recognized . WHO reported that Depression is the leading cause of ill health and disability worldwide. Depression leads to impairment in quality of life
Depression in parents can have adverse impacts on the health, development and education of their children. Depression in childhood and youth, if not treated, can have profound longstanding social and economic consequences in adulthood .
Depression increases the risk for development of chronic medical diseases. Depression is associated with 60% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. depression increases risk of developing
coronary heart disease and studies showed that depression increases the risk of dying among patients who have had heart attack
Another issue in depression is the danger for self. Depression is the leading cause of death due to suicide, Almost 1 million lives are lost yearly due to suicide, which translates to 3000 suicide deaths every day.
Treatment options for depression include: psychotherapy , pharmacotherapy, and
For patients not responding we may use Neurostimulation Therapy (Electroconvulsive therapy, Trans-cranial magnetic stimulation)